This simple Action Centered Leadership model provides a great blueprint for leadership and the management of any team, group or organization. Action Centered Leadership is also a simple leadership and management model, which makes it easy to remember and apply, and to adapt for your own situation.
ACL model nhaèm thieát laäp moät keá hoïach thaät chi tieát cho ngöôøi laõnh ñaïo vaø ngöôøi quaûn lyù cuûa nhoùm hoaëc toå chöùc. ACL cuõng laø moät kieåu laûnh ñaïo vaø quaûn lyù ñôn giaûn giuùp baïn deã nhôù vaø aùp duïng, vaø phuø hôïp trong moïi tình huoáng.
Good managers and leaders should have full command of the three main areas of the Action Centered Leadership model, and should be able to use each of the elements according to the situation. Being able to do all of these things, and keep the right balance, gets results, builds morale, improves quality, develops teams and productivity, and is the mark of a successful manager and leader.
Ngöôøi laõnh ñaïo gioûi phaûi thaáu hieåu ñöôïc 3 phaàn chính cuûa ACL model, vaø coù khaû naêng vaän duïng caùc yeáu toá moät caùch ñuùng theo töøng tình huoáng.
The three parts are:
This action-centered leadership task-team-individual model adapts extremely well (as below) for the demands of modern business management. When using it in your own environment think about the aspects of performance necessary for success in your own situation, and incorporate local relevant factors into the model to create your own interpretation. This will give you a very useful management framework:
Kieåu ACL naøy raát thích öùng vôùi nhöõng nhu caàu quaûn lyù kinh doanh hieän ñaïi. Khi söû duïng chuùng trong moâi tröôøng laøm vieäc cuûa baïn, haõy nghó ñeán caùc khía caïnh cuûa performance caàn thieát ñeå thaønh coâng trong tình huoáng rieâng cuûa baïn, vaø keát hôïp chaëc cheõ nhöõng yeáu toá beân ngoøai vaøo vôùi baøi hoïc ñeå taïo cho mình moät interpretation rieâng.
Your responsibilities as a manager for achieving the Task are:
Identify aims and vision for the group, purpose, and direction - define the activity. (The task)
Identify resources, people, processes, systems and tools. (Inc. financials, communications, IT)
Create the plan to achieve the task - deliverables, measures, timescales, strategy and tactics.
Establish responsibilities, objectives, accountabilities and measures, by agreement and delegation.
Set standards, quality, time and reporting parameters.
Control and maintain activities against parameters.
Monitor and maintain overall performance against plan.
Report on progress towards the group's aim.
Review, re-assess, and adjust plan, methods and targets as necessary.
Your responsibilities as a manager for the Group are:
Establish, agree and communicate standards of performance and behavior.
Establish style, culture, and approach of the group - soft skill elements.
Monitor and maintain discipline, ethics, integrity and focus on objectives.
Anticipate and resolve group conflict, struggles or disagreements.
Assess and change as necessary the balance and composition of the group.
Develop team working, cooperation, morale and team spirit.
Develop the collective maturity and capability of the group - progressively increase group freedom and authority.
Encourage the team towards objectives and aims - motivate the group and provide a collective sense of purpose.
Identify, develop and agree team- and project-leadership roles within group.
Enable, facilitate and ensure effective internal and external group communications.
Identify and meet group-training needs.
Give feedback to the group on overall progress; consult with, and seek feedback and input from the group.
Your responsibilities as a manager for each Individual are:
Understand the team members as individuals - personality, skills, strengths, needs, aims and fears
Assist and support individuals - plans, problems, challenges, highs and lows
Identify and agree appropriate individual responsibilities and objectives
Give recognition and praise to individuals - acknowledge effort and good work
Where appropriate reward individuals with extra responsibility, advancement and status
Identify, develop and utilise each individual's capabilities and strengths
Train and develop individual team members
Develop individual freedom and authority
Leadership is different to management. All leaders are not necessarily great managers, but the best leaders will possess good management skills. One skill-set does not automatically imply the other will be present.
Leadership is an ancient ability about deciding direction, meaning the road or path ahead; knowing the next step and then taking others with you to it. Managing is a later concept, from Latin 'manus', meaning hand, and more associated with handling a system or machine of some kind. There are valuable elements of management not necessarily found in leadership, e.g. administration and managing resources. Leadership on the other hand contains elements not necessarily found in management, e.g. inspiring others through the leader's own enthusiasm and commitment.
The Action Centered Leadership model has the three elements - Achieving the Task, Developing the Team and Developing Individuals – they are mutually dependent, as well as being separately essential to the overall leadership role.
Importantly as well, these core functions of leadership are vital to the Action Centered Leadership model:
Planning - seeking information, defining tasks, setting aims Initiating - briefing, task allocation, setting standards.
Controlling - maintaining standards, ensuring progress, ongoing decision-making.
Supporting - individuals' contributions, encouraging, team spirit, reconciling, morale.
Informing - clarifying tasks and plans, updating, receiving feedback and interpreting.
Evaluating - feasibility of ideas, performance, enabling self-assessment.
The Action Centered Leadership model therefore does not stand-alone, it must be part of an integrated approach to managing and leading, and also which should include a strong emphasis on applying these principles through training.
Also promote a '50:50 rule' which he applies to various situations involving two possible influencers, e.g. the view that 50% of motivation lies with the individual and 50% comes from external factors, among them leadership from another. Most of the motivation is from within the individual. Also this suggests that 50% of team building success comes from the team and 50% from the leader.
While leadership is easy to explain, leadership is not so easy to practice. Leadership is about behavior first, skills second. Good leaders are followed chiefly because people trust and respect them, rather than the skills they possess. Leadership is different to management. Management relies more on planning, organisational and communications skills. Leadership relies on management skills too, but more so on qualities such as integrity, honesty, humility, courage, commitment, sincerity, passion, confidence, positivity, wisdom, determination, compassion and sensitivity. Some people are born more naturally to leadership than others. Most people don't seek to be a leader. Those who want to be a leader can develop leadership ability.
Leadership can be performed with different styles. Some leaders have one style, which is right for certain situations and wrong for others. Some leaders can adapt and use different leadership styles for given situations.
Fundamental leadership principles:
There is only one way - the straight way. It sets the tone of the organisation.
Be open to the best of what everyone, everywhere, has to offer; transfer learning across your organisation.
Get the right people in the right jobs - it is more important than developing a strategy.
An informal atmosphere is a competitive advantage.
Make sure everybody counts and everybody knows they count.
Legitimate self-confidence is a winner - the true test of self-confidence is the courage to be open.
Business has to be fun - celebrations energise and organisation.
Never underestimate the other guy.
Understand where real value is added and put your best people there.
Know when to meddle and when to let go - this is pure instinct.
As a leader, your main priority is to get the job done, whatever the job is. Leaders make things happen by:
Knowing your objectives and having a plan how to achieve them.
Building a team committed to achieving the objectives.
Helping each team member to give his or her best efforts.
As a leader you must know yourself. Know your own strengths and weaknesses, so that you can build the best team around you.
Plan carefully, with your people where appropriate, how you will achieve your aims. You may have to redefine or develop your own new aims and priorities. Leadership can be daunting for many people simply because no one else is issuing the aims - leadership often means you have to create your own from a blank sheet of paper. Set and agree clear standards. Keep the right balance between 'doing' yourself and managing others 'to do'.
Build teams. Ensure you look after people and that communications and relationships are good. Select good people and help them to develop. Develop people via training and experience, particularly by agreeing objectives and responsibilities that will interest and stretch them, and always support people while they strive to improve and take on extra tasks. Follow the rules about delegation closely - this process is crucial. Ensure that your managers are applying the same principles. Good leadership principles must cascade down through the whole organisation. This means that is you are leading a large organisation you must check that the processes for managing, communicating and developing people are in place and working properly.
Communication is critical. Listen, consult, involve, and explain why as well as what needs to be done.
Some leaders lead by example and are very 'hands on'; others are more distanced and let their people do it. Whatever - your example is paramount - the way you work and conduct yourself will be the most you can possibly expect from your people. If you set low standards you are to blame for low standards in your people.
"... Praise loudly, blame softly." Follow this proverb.
If you seek one single most important behaviour that will rapidly earn you respect and trust among your people, this is it: Always give your people the credit for your achievements and successes. Never take the credit yourself - even if it's all down to you, which would be unlikely anyway. You must however take the blame and accept responsibility for any failings or mistakes that your people make. Never never never publicly blame another person for a failing. Their failing is your responsibility - true leadership offers is no hiding place for a true leader.
Take time to listen to and really understand people. Walk the job. Ask and learn about what people do and think, and how they think improvements can be made.
Accentuate the positive. Express things in terms of what should be done, not what should not be done? If you accentuate the negative, people are more likely to veer towards it. Like the mother who left her five-year-old for a minute unsupervised in the kitchen, saying as she left the room, "...don't you go putting those beans up your nose..."
Have faith in people to do great things - given space and air and time, everyone can achieve more than they hope for. Provide people with relevant interesting opportunities, with proper measures and rewards and they will more than repay your faith.
Take difficult decisions bravely, and be truthful and sensitive when you implement them.
Constantly seek to learn from the people around you - they will teach you more about yourself than anything else. They will also tell you 90% of what you need to know to achieve your business goals.
Embrace change, but not for change sake. Begin to plan your own succession as soon as you take up your new post, and in this regard, ensure that the only promises you ever make are those that you can guarantee to deliver.
Leadership skills are based on leadership behaviour. Skills alone do not make leaders - style and behaviour do. If you are interested in leadership training and development - start with leadership behaviour. Leadership is mostly about behaviour, especially towards others. People who strive for these things generally come to be regarded and respected as a leader by their people:
Integrity - the most important requirement; without it everything else is for nothing.
Being very grown-up - never getting emotional with people - no shouting or ranting, even if you feel very upset or angry.
Leading by example - always be seen to be working harder and more determinedly than anyone else.
Help alongside your people when they need it.
Fairness - treat everyone equally and on merit.
Be firm and clear in dealing with bad or unethical behaviour.
Listen to and really understand people, and show them that you understand (this doesn't mean you have to agree with everyone - understanding is different to agreeing).
Always take the responsibility and blame for your people's mistakes.
Always give your people the credit for your successes.
Back up and support your people.
Be decisive, but be seen to be making fair and balanced decisions.
Ask for people's views, but remain neutral and objective.
Be honest but sensitive in the ways that give bad news or criticism.
Always do what you say you will do - keep your promises.
Work hard to become expert at what you do technically, and at understanding your people's technical abilities and challenges.
Encourage your people to grow, learn and take on as much as they want to, at a pace they can handle.
Always accentuate the positive (say 'do it like this', not 'don't do it like that').
Smile and encourage others to be happy and to enjoy themselves.
Relax, and give your people and yourself time to get to know and respect each other.
Take notes and keep good records.
Plan and prioritise.
Manage your time well and help others to do so too.
Involve your people in your thinking and especially in managing change.
Read good books, and take advice from good people, to help develop your own understanding of yourself, and particularly of other people's weaknesses.
Achieve the company tasks and objectives, but never at the cost of your integrity or the trust of your people.
The are various games and exercises in the team building games section that work well for demonstrating, assessing and developing leadership. See particularly the 'leading or managing' exercise (below), which is a flexible activity for illustrating the differences between managing and leading. As regards leadership exercises for experiential development of leadership abilities, focus on the leadership challenge of leading and managing a team - the task itself is secondary - so virtually any team game is suitable provided you give each leader a team of four or more people to lead. The more people, the bigger the test of leadership. You do not need a complicated exercise to create a leadership challenge. The leadership challenge is produced by having to organise, plan and motivate a team of people. In fact, if the task is too complex it will obscure the team leadership issues, by distracting from or hampering leadership skills and qualities. For leadership development choose exercises that includes an enjoyable and achievable challenge - even very basic games like newspaper towers will be a good test of leadership if you create teams of four or more for the leader to lead. Use games that you feel will produce variety, fun and a mixture of activities. The round tables exercise is particularly suitable to test and develop leadership skills. Choose a mixture of exercises that encourage the leaders think about using a different approach, and different people's strengths, for each challenge.
Employee motivation benefits from team building games, exercises and activities. Use these team building games and exercises ideas to warm up meetings, training, and conferences. These team-building games are also great icebreakers for training sessions, meetings, workshops, seminars or conferences. Team building games and activities are useful also in serious business project meetings, where games and activities help delegates to see things differently and use different thinking styles. Games and exercises help with stimulating the brain, improving retention of ideas, and increasing fun and enjoyment.
Before you decide to use any team-building games with a group of people, think about whether the activities are appropriate for the team members and the situation. Team members should ideally enjoy the activity, learn something from it, which they can apply, and which will improve results.
Note that team-building games are not necessarily the best way to improve team morale and attitude if there are problems in these areas. Workshops are often a better starting point for fragile or bruised teams, which need basic bonding, confidence and help to strengthen their sense of responsibility and purpose.
Effective relationships and behaviour at work involve the same principles as everyday life - respect for others, integrity, honesty, compassion, courage - all the good things that we all naturally possess deep down. Sometimes people have insecurities or stresses, which create difficulties on the surface, to which others in the team then react. Emotional maturity, or Emotional Intelligence is a useful perspective. However, if you approach a behavioural problem head-on, or try to resolve it with a team building exercise, this can cause people to clam up and become defensive (just like we all tend to do when someone is critical or implies a weakness). Instead, ask the people what they'd enjoy and find helpful for their lives in general. Move the issue away from work and skills and 'team-building' per se. Help the person (and people) rather than treat the symptoms. If you help people with their life-balance and personal fulfillment they become more emotionally mature, tolerant, positive independent, self-sufficient, etc. When the person is okay, so is everything else, including their relationships and communications at work. Developing people involves more than behaviour, relationships, skills, knowledge and processes. It's often more about helping people feel better about themselves, helping the person to feel happy and fulfilled. A good leader can facilitate this. Team building doesn't have to involve games and exercises - team building might be better achieved by arranging other things, which appear to be unconnected to work. Perhaps the sort of things that people would otherwise seek out at evening classes. Perhaps lunchtime yoga or reiki or relaxation sessions might be of interest? Maybe go bowling? Horse riding? Ask the people. In the summer maybe play softball on the park? Or maybe ask if they would like to run a lunchtime barbecue for clients and suppliers. If you focus on the problem it will become a battlefield. Instead focus on fun, new positive experiences and self-fulfillment.
The subjects on this website increasingly feature ideas for developing the whole person. In the same way, you are not restricted to providing traditional work skills development. Explore everything, and show your people that you have a broader view about development - they'll have lots of ideas of their own if you let them see it's okay to think that way. Team building games are just a part of a very wide mix of learning and development experiences that you can explore and facilitate for your people - try anything. If it helps your people to feel good and be good, then it will help your organisation be good too.
The selling game focuses on the overall consultative sales process, from the mental preparation required beforehand, through to negotiating with the customer and closing the sale.
Here are the stages of the selling.
In sales, attitude is everything! This stage is about making sure that team members set themselves clear and compelling goals, feel calm, confident and in a positive frame of mind, and look forward to the selling experience.
Research shows that people buy from people they like, so team members' ability to build powerful rapport with customers, quickly and easily, provides them with the foundation for success in sales. This stage is about developing strong relationships based on mutual trust and respect.
The better team members understand their customers, the more effectively they will be able to align products and/or services to the customer's specific requirements, and the more likely they are to achieve a sale. This stage is about using questions in a systematic and persuasive way to find out what's important to the customer and gaining a full appreciation of their specific requirements.
Once team members have understood their customers' requirements, they are in a great position to meet them and win the business. This stage is about presenting proposals so that they show how your product/service totally fulfils the customer's requirements, and offer an irresistible proposition.
There may be occasions where team members have to negotiate with a customer prior to making a sale. This stage is about the strategies they can use in their negotiations to help establish common ground, develop the relationship with the customer even further and achieve a win-win outcome.
The manner in which team members respond to customer concerns will have a major impact on their sales results. This stage is about pre-empting objections as far as possible and handling them positively if and when they do arise. It's also about taking a proactive approach to closing, and getting the sale.
Although there is a logical order to the stages in the sales process, life rarely happens in a perfect step-by-step sequence. In winning a piece of business - which can take weeks, months, even years - sales people may go through selling stages simultaneously, or in a different order and/or several times.
Whatever, the challenge for sales people is to respond flexibly and appropriately to each customer and situation. Flexibility and adaptability are key elements of successful selling.
The Selling Game can be used as a diagnostic tool, to help you identify the specific areas in which your team members need to develop, and then use suggestions cards to help you address those areas.
Alternatively, the game can be used to reinforce the learning from the suggestions cards and check your team members' understanding.
The resource is flexible to enable choice of approach based on the needs of team members, the challenge and priorities faced, and the time available for the learning session.